BIS Mbridge Ledger Making Strides As Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs) Continue To Advance
While central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) have primarily been a topic of discussion in the context of their implications to the consumer, the integral management of CBDCs could potentially transform the very foundations of international economic activity. These digital currencies hold tremendous potential, but as with any disruptive technology, their design must be approached cautiously to ensure that the advantages outweigh the drawbacks.
With this caution in mind, the pace of CBDC development is accelerating, with over 100 countries —including 19 of the G20 economies—contemplating the introduction of some form of CBDC, particularly in Asia. Backed by the full authority of the state, these products offer stability and mitigate many of the risks associated with other digital currencies like stablecoins or cryptocurrencies.
On the surface, CBDCs will function much like the digital cash in our online bank accounts. For retail users, the differences may seem negligible. However, beneath the surface, they hold the potential to streamline both domestic and cross-border payments, ushering in an era of low-cost, secure, and near-instantaneous transactions. This innovation can stimulate economic growth and drive financial sector advancements, benefiting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in particular.
One pressing question is how CBDCs will coexist with private money in the commercial banking system, ensuring that banks can continue to play their essential role in lending to the economy and supporting growth. Many models are considering a hybrid system where the central bank issues the currency, but payment services and account management are outsourced to the commercial banking sector.
While most central banks are primarily focused on domestic opportunities, some pilot schemes are exploring how CBDCs might operate internationally, potentially creating common standards and data protocols.
Bank Of international Settlements Leading In Development With MBridge Ledger
Among these initiatives, mbridge stands out, a project led by the Bank for International Settlements in collaboration with various central banks. The mBridge Ledger was built by central banks to support real-time, peer-to-peer, cross-border payments and foreign exchange transactions using CBDCs. It also ensures compliance with jurisdiction-specific policy and legal requirements, regulations and governance needs.
A program involving real corporate transactions centerd around international trade was conducted on the platform among participating central banks, selected commercial banks and their customers in four jurisdictions. In the original pilot, the platform successfully transferred over $21 million CBDC across the network during a trial in August and September 2022. It utilizes blockchain technology to facilitate real-time peer-to-peer foreign exchange transactions and cross-border payments using CBDCs.
The wholesale CBDC model, which combines commercial banking expertise with the security of distributed ledger technology and central bank involvement, appears to be a promising path forward. It offers the potential for faster transactions, reduced settlement risks, and support for advancements like asset tokenization and smart contracts. However, there is still much work ahead to fully understand the impact of CBDCs on financial systems and economies. Ensuring the introduction of CBDCs does not lead to deposit losses is a critical challenge.
Nonetheless, CBDCs hold significant potential and are likely to see broader adoption in various forms soon. The challenge for both central and commercial banks is to design infrastructure that maximizes benefits, maintains the strengths of the current system, and safeguards the global financial system against new vulnerabilities. All while not thwarting access to a conditioned consumer used to the ways of fiat.